[13]  Figures

The links are to figures at 300 ppi.

Part I
Section 1.3
Figure 1.1 Seven characteristics in peas that were observed and scored by Mendel in his published experiments. 35
Figure 1.2 Schematic drawing showing the outcome of Mendel's second law of segregation. 38
Figure 1.3 Comparison of the ideas of Lamarckian and Mendelian theories of evolutionary change. 39
Figure 1.4 Diagrams illustrate the replica plating technique used by Lederberg to demonstrate that streptomycin resistance results from mutations that can
occur quite independently of exposure of the culture to the drug. 41

Section 1.4
Figure 1.5 Schematic model of crossing over. 44
Figure 1.6 Diagrams illustrating the effects of stabilizing (normalizing), directional, and disruptive selection. 47

Section 1.5
Figure 1.7 The adaptive grid. 49
Figure 1.8 An adaptive grid diagram of the evolution of terrestrial plants, indicating major breakthroughs and invasions of new adaptive zones. 50
Figure 1.9 Some common evolutionary patterns as indicated by morphological changes among different lineages. 52

Section 2.1
Figure 2.1 Three types of radioactive decay. 61
Figure 2.2 Graph illustrating law of radioactivity with proportion of radioactive parent remaining (N/No) drawn on linear scale. 63
Figure 2.3 Decay curves for uranium-235, uranium-238, and thorium-232. 67
Figure 2.4 Graphs showing changes in isotope ratios in common lead in the earth during the past 4.5 billion years. 68
Figure 2.5 Graph slowing ratio of lead-206/uranium-238 with respect to time. 68
Figure 2.6 Graph of radiogenic lead-207/lead-206 ratio versus time. 70

Section 2.2
Figure 2.7 Living onchyophoran (superphylum Protarthropoda). 87
Figure 2.8 Neopilina, ventral view with paired gills. 88
Figure 2.9 The oldest known Amphibian skeleton, Ichthyostega of the late Devonian. 88
Figure 2.10 The vertebrae of Paleozoic lepospondyls and labyrinthodonts. 89
Figure 2.11 The seymouriamorph. 90
Figure 2.12 Fossil and restoration of a primitive bird Archaeopteryx. 92
Figure 2.13 Skull of the advanced therapsid Diarthrognathus. 93
Section 2.3
Figure 2.14 Time scale of Hominoidea ancestry as correlated with glaciation and cul4tural periods. 96
Figure 2.15 Four lower jaws show variations in the amount of rearward divergence of the tooth arcades in three fossil primates. 99
Figure 2.16 Comparison of four views of two adult australopithecine skull casts with a skull of a modern human. 104
Figure 2.17 Oldowan pebble tool. 105
Figure 2.18 Palate and upper teeth of an australopithecine, a gorilla, and a human. 106
Figure 2.19 Cranium KNM-ER-1470, a new Homo from East Rudolph. 107
Figure 2.20 Comparison of four views of Homo erectus with a Neanderthal skull cast. 109
Figure 2.21 Comparison of four views of a modern human skull with a Homo erectus skull cast. 110
Figure 2.22 Comparison of four views of a modern human skull with a Neanderthal skull cast. 111
Figure 2.23 Comparison of choppers with chopping tools. 112

Section 2.4
Figure 2.24 The biogeographic realms of the world. 120-21
Figure 2.25 Comparison of latitudinal and attitudinal life zones of plants in North America. 122
Figure 2.26 Ecological zones in the ocean. 122
Figure 2.27 Continental drift. 124
Figure 2.28 The distribution of Clasmatocolea vermicularis. 126
Figure 2.29 The location of the Galapagos Islands and their distribution of birds according to bill structures. 127
Section 2.5
Figure 2.30 Electron micrographs of thin sections of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. 129
Figure 2.31 The evolution of eucaryotic cell types through symbiosis. 131
Figure 2.32 The bones of the forelimbs of a frog, lizard, bird, human, cat, whale, and bat. 133
Figure 2.33 Comparison of vertebrae of primitive tetrapods and modern amniotes. 134
Figure 2.34 Diagram comparing the structures of vertebrate hearts. 136
Figure 2.35 The appendix in the human digestive system. 138
Figure 2.36 Mean antibody curves, showing the effect of shielding or irradiation of the appendix as compared totally irradiated and nonirradiated rabbits. 139
Figure 2.37 Human brain, left half, sagittal section. 140
Figure 2.38 Plica semilunaris in humans. 141
Figure 2.39 Coccygeal vertebrae in humans. 141
Figure 2.40 A comparison of vertebrate embryos at three stages of development. 142

Section 2.6
Figure 2.41 Bacterial transformation. 145
Figure 2.42 The transforming principle. 146
Figure 2.43 Base pairing in DNA. 147
Figure 2.44 Purines and pyrimidines. 148
Figure 2.45 Presence of an oxygen in the 2' position of each sugar ring of the ribonucleic acid as contrasted with deoxyribonucleic acid. 149
Figure 2.46 DNA replication. 149
Figure 2.47 Transcription and translation. 150
Figure 2.48 The alpha helix maintained by intrachain hydrogen bonding. 154
Figure 2.49 Hemoglobin. 155
Figure 2.50 Enzyme-substrate interaction. 156
Figure 2.51 Photomicrograph of normal (disklike) and sickle (crescent-shaped) blood cells. 156
Figure 2.52 The Jacob-Monod operon model for control of the synthesis of lactose-metabolizing enzymes. 157
Figure 2.53 Six distinguishable kinds of molecular mutation. 158
Figure 2.54 Classes of nucleotide replacement. 159
Figure 2.55 Regular and unusual base pairing of thymine. 160
Figure 2.56 The oxidative deamination of DNA by nitrous acid, and its effect on subsequent base pairing. 161
Figure 2.57 Thymine dimers produced by ultraviolet irradiation. 162
Figure 2.58 Ultraviolet-induced mutation. 163
Figure 2.59 Possible mechanism by which cross-linking of the double helix of DNA can occur after x-ray irradiation. 163
Figure 2.60 The effect of two compensating frame-shift mutations in the gene coding for lysozyme in the bacteriophage T4. 164
Figure 2.61 Mitosis. 165
Figure 2.62 Meiosis. 165
Figure 2.63 Chromosome duplication and deletion arisen from translocation during meiosis. 167

Section 3.2
Figure 3.1 Simplified diagram of a chemostat. 177
Figure 3.2 Rate of evolution in irradiated and nonirradiated experimental populations of Drosophila birchii. 179
Figure 3.3 The peppered moth, Biston betularia, and its melanic form, carbonaria,
at rest on soot covered tree. The same forms resting on a lichened tree trunk. 182
Figure 3.4 Distribution of the sickle-cell gene in Africa, the Middle East, and India. 184
Figure 3.5 Distribution of malignant malarias caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 185
Figure 3.6 Variation among the breeds of domestic pigeon. 186
Figure 3.7 Unexposed skin color. 189

Section 3.3
Figure 3.8 Pasteur's demonstration of bacteria trapped in a curved neck flask. 193
Figure 3.9 A diagram of the box that Tyndall used to demonstrate that "optically empty" air contains no micro-organisms. 194
Figure 3.10 Three stages of chemical evolution. 196
Figure 3.11 Experiment of S. L. Miller to make amino acids. 198
Figure 3.12 Evolution of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) by allopolyploidy. 205
Figure 3.13 Diagram of a vertical slab gel-electrophoresis apparatus. 209
Figure 3.14 Rates of amino acid substitution in the fibrinopeptides, hemoglobin, and cytochrome c. 210
Figure 3.15 Assumed phylogeny of the species for which sequences were examined. 211
Figure 3.16 Linear relation between time elapsed and nucleotide substitutions. 212
Figure 3.17 Rates of evolution in the classes of vertebrates. 213
Figure 3.18 Contrast between biological evolution and molecular evolution since the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages. 215
Figure 3.19 Adult esterases from D. pseudoobscura. 217
Figure 3.20 The minimal amount of DNA that has been observed for various species in the types of organisms listed. 220

Part II
Section 4

Figure 4.1 Diagrammatic representation of three leading world views. 234