John C. Studenroth


"It is the glory of God to conceal a matter, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter." Prov 25:2 (NASB)

Consider the glory of God as revealed in: (1) the green plant; (2) the single cell; (3) the ribosome; and (4) the virus.


Imagine designing a robot to prepare an exactly earth-like planet (without life) for human habitation; must meet following specifications:

Metabolic synthesis:

Growth, differentiation, and reproduction:

Adaptation to environmental change:

These are only a few of the more basic requirements:

No committee of scientists & engineers on earth could begin to duplicate what God has done with the simple seed that grows into a green plant!

This analogy borrowed from secular authors: Frank Salisbury and Cleon Ross, Plant Physiology.


The closer we examine man's handiwork, the cruder it looks.
The closer we examine God's handiwork, the more sophisticated it looks!

All living things from bacteria up to humans are composed of cells
Cell: a jelly-like cytoplasm around a nucleus, surrounded by a cell membrane

Greatly oversimplified: more like a large highly-organized city
transportation system, power plants, factories, packaging plants, city hail

Duplicate sets of blueprints stored in nucleus
perhaps 100 trillion cells in human being
simple cell (bacterial) has information content = 100 million pages of Encyc Brit
Sagan, "Life," Encyclopaedia Britannica (1974), 10:894
DNA from one human cell unwound would be about 6 ft long

Chromosomes like chemical cookbooks each containing thousands of recipes
Each gene like a single recipe, written in chemical words with four-letter alphabet
Each human cell has 46 cookbooks, a duplicate set of 23 each
Number of possible variations of human chromosomes is 102.4 billion
contrast number of elementary particles in universe 1080!

"The human being is an extraordinarily improbable object."
 Sagan, ibid., 895d.


Single ribosome is very small: millionth of an inch in largest dimension
cell may contain half a million ribosomes
yet very complex

To cook a recipe from one of its cookbooks, cell first xeroxes the recipe
uses a sophisticated protein, an enzyme called transcriptase

Xeroxed copies of recipes are called messenger RNA

The cooks are the ribosomes
They grab the recipes, mRNA, march along them
grabbing the right ingredients (from among 20 amino acids)
stick these together with peptide bonds to form proteins
This is done with amazing accuracy, since one wrong ingredient is a spoiled dish

Without ribosomes, there would be no proteins

But ribosomes themselves are made up of 50 to 80 very complex and different proteins,
plus nucleic acids called ribosomal RNA
Need ribosomes to make proteins, but need proteins to make ribosomes!

There is a recipe in the cookbook for making a cook, but need cooks to make cooks
Who will cook the first cook?

Likewise the RNA in the ribosomes must be xeroxed out of the cookbooks
Who will do the xeroxing?

Yet typical high school textbook says "Somewhere in the warm sunlit waters of the sea the first cell was formed" (i.e., quite by accident).


A virus is a germ's germ, about same size as ribosome

Virus very simple, basically two components:
Small strand of DNA or RNA (just enough for a few recipes)
Protective coat of proteins
NO ribosomes, cytoplasm, nucleus, organelles, etc.

Is this the missing link between life and non-life?

Viruses by themselves can't do anything
need a functional cell to operate
Like runaway cookbooks which get into the kitchen and confuse the cooks
who then make the evil recipes provided by the virus
eventually making copies of the evil cookbooks to take over other cells

Overlapping genes
God's wisdom revealed in a way that totally baffles man:
two recipes from one!
Discovered in 1977:
 Sanger, F., et al. 1977. 'Nucleotide sequence of b. ph. 0X174 DNA Nature 265:687.