Publications as of December, 2014 dcb


The following IBRI publications are available as Kindle eBooks and may be purchased from The titles below link to the corresponding Kindle web page which has the full abstract and includes sample pages. Complete books are $2.99 and other papers and reports are $0.99 each. Some "Occasional Papers" are individual articles from Interpretation and History, Understanding the Bible, and other compilations. All eBooks are © Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute.

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Book ## Aratus of Soli Phaenomena (Annotated) A description of the 48 ancient constellations in the Greek sphere, together with numerous weather signs, translated into English from Aratus' Greek poem. The constellation part was versified about 250 BC from two earlier works of Eudoxus (d 355 BC); the weather signs (often titled separately as Diosemeia) was drawn from Aristotle, Theophrastus and Hesiod. This is the earliest extant work which describes all the ancient constellations, and it is here annotated with bracketed comments and illustrated with numerous traditional constellation pictures. Date
Book ##### Chinn, Douglas S. & Chinn, Virginia F.
Post-Trib Alternative to the Pre-Trib Rapture Will Christians who are alive at the time go through the great tribulation, or will they be snatched away to heaven and escape this fearful period? The seven major points of conflict between the pre-tribulational and post-tribulational models of the rapture are here considered. Both alternatives are examined, and how each handles the various biblical passages. It is suggested that the post-tribulational model best fits the biblical data. 1991
Book ## Dunzweiler, Robert J. Understanding the Bible A number of essays in theology and apologetics (defense of the faith). These sixteen papers deal with a wide range of subjects, ranging from tongue-speaking to the Trinity, from evolution to eschatology (teaching about the end-times). 2000
Book ## Harris, Quek & Vannoy Interpretation & History A volume of essays written and presented to Dr. Allan A. MacRae by his former pupils on the occasion of his eighty-fourth birthday. The book concerns vital issues affecting the interpretation of the Bible and the understanding of certain historical problems. It comprises contributions by seventeen scholars (besides a few others) 1986
Book ## Hoover, David P. The Defeasible Pumpkin A critique of presuppositionalism of the sort advocated by Cornelius Van Til. This is presented (for popular consumption) in the form of a reunion of the now middle-aged characters from the comic strip Peanuts. Charlie Brown is an evangelical Christian and Linus a believer in the Great Pumpkin, but both are presuppositionalists in their advocacy and defense of their respective faiths. How can Charlie help Linus to see that Christianity really is the truth? A more technical philosophical presentation is given in a separate section for those who are so inclined. 1997
Book ## Horsley Prophecies of the Messiah Among the Gentiles (Annotated) There was a very widespread belief in the coming of a benevolent, messianic world-ruler about the time of Jesus. Why? Besides the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, the author suggests that the original promises, given to the pre-Abrahamic patriarchs, were apparently somehow transmitted down to Greco-Roman times by other channels outside the nation Israel. Using both biblical and classical materials, the author argues what form these materials may have taken. Date
Book ## MacRae, Allan A.
Biblical Christianity A collection of over 100 letters written by Prof Allan A MacRae, responding in some detail to the many questions he was asked over his long career as teacher on the faculties of Westminster, Faith, and Biblical Theological Seminaries. Topics include languages, Bible texts and versions, biblical interpretation and reliability, the JEDP theory, biblical numerics, creation, baptism, eschatology, education, communism, dispensationalism, and a number of other subjects. 1994
Book ## MacRae, Allan A. Gospel of Isaiah For most people, Isaiah chapters 40-56 seems like a long collection of isolated verses. Though it contains many beautiful gems such as those immortalized in Handel’s Messiah, these are separated by passages that often seem comparatively meaningless. Here the author shows that this whole section has a wonderful unity which sometimes lies hidden below the surface. Reading this book, you will be able to see the passage in a new light, to understand how its parts fit together, and to relive the gradual process of thought that reaches its great climax in the moving account of the sufferings of Jesus, and the glory that will follow. 1977
Book ## MacRae, Allan A. JEDP: Lectures on the Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch Seminary-level lectures on the liberal theories that Moses did not write the first five books of the Bible, but that they were assembled from several conflicting documents written hundreds of years after his time. These lectures trace the history of the various early documentary theories. The author critiques the several arguments for dividing the Pentateuch into documents. He concludes by responding to claims that the alleged documents show the development of Israel's religious ideas. 1994
Book ## MacRae, Allan A. Studies in Isaiah A section-by-section study of the prophet's message, showing how each passage is clarified as a result of seeing how it fits into the flow of the book as a whole, and into the historical situation of Isaiah and his contemporaries. This survey of Isaiah has been acclaimed by many as especially helpful for understanding Isaiah’s message. 1995
Book ## MacRae, Allan A. The Prophecies of Daniel An examination of the major predictive passages in the book of Daniel, providing “seasoned and responsible exegesis of passages containing some of the most difficult interpretive problems in the Bible … in a style that is accessible to lay readers as well as those trained in Biblical studies. 1991
Book ## MacRae Our Pilgrim Journey How does (and should) a follower of Jesus use the Old Testament? The author here uses the wilderness wanderings of Israel, between their Exodus from Egypt and the entrance to the Promised Land, as an analogy for the Christian life, as suggested by Paul in 1 Corinthians 10:1-13. This was the first lecture series conducted by Dr. Allan A. MacRae at Biblical School of Theology, Hatfield, PA, which opened its doors on September 28, 1971. It was later to become Biblical Theological Seminary. Date
Book ## Maunder, E. Walter
The Astronomy of the Bible, 2nd. Ed. (Annotated)
An examination of Biblical references to astronomy with Annotations by Robert C. Newman and David C. Bossard to reflect advances since the original publication in 1922.

Book ## Murray Nehemiah A five-session series on the book of Nehemiah, taught by Dr. Jack W. Murray, of Bible Evangelism, Hatfield, Pennsylvania. The series was given at the Word of Life Bible Conference in Schroon Lake, New York in 1974. Date
Book ## Nevius, John L.
Demon Possession (Annotated)
Evidence of Demon Possession of humans. Originally published in 1892. Written by a veteran missionary to China who was initially skeptical of the phenomenon, until he began to study it himself. He begins with a series of cases in China which he personally investigated, followed by the results of a survey sent out to other missionaries in China, and then gives examples from India, Japan, etc. He finds strong correlations with the New Testament accounts, and with other accounts from the ancient world. This is considered by many the classic treatment of the subject. The author also interacts with the various alternative explanations of the phenomena.

Book ## Newman, Robert C. The Biblical Firmament: Vault or Vapor? Some think the Bible teaches that the sky is a huge metal dome, "the firmament." Others say the Bible is referring to our atmosphere when it uses this word. Who is right? In this book we take a look at the biblical data, both the original words and the contexts in which they occur, and seek to constructa model that is consistent with this data and with the Bible's own claims to be a revelation from the Creator of the universe. 2000
Book ## Newman, Robert C. (Author, Editor), Bloom, John A. (Author), Frederick A. Aston (Author), Samuel H. Kellogg (Author), Eugenie Johnston (Author), Robert W. Manweiler (Author), Perry G. Phillips (Author), Calvin E. Stowe (Author), Elaine A. Phillips (Author) Evidence of Prophecy One of the most powerful evidences for the truth of biblical Christianity is the fulfillment of predictions made in Scripture. Here, nine authors discuss prophecies made centuries in advance about Israel, her neighbors, and her Messiah. Specific attempts to explain these away as vague, misinterpreted, or written after the event are countered. If you have ever wondered whether or not there is objective evidence to answer the ultimate questions, you should read this book. 1988
Book ## Newman, Robert C. Lectures on the Synoptic Gospels An edited transcription of lectures given for a number of years at Biblical Seminary in Hatfield, Pennsylvania, as videotaped and recorded in June of 2012. Lectures cover the Historical Jesus, Miracles, Intertestament Background, Introduction to Exegesis, Authorship and Date of the Synoptics, Their Characteristics, Introduction to and Exegesis of Parables, Literary Approach to the Gospels, the Synoptic Problem, Geography of Palestine and Jerusalem, Exegesis of Miracle Accounts, Biblical Theology of the Synoptics, Exegesis of Controversy Accounts, Form Criticism, and Redaction Criticism. 2014
Book ## Newman, Robert C., Phillips, Eckelmann Genesis One & the Origin of the Earth How did the world begin? How long did creation take? What is the age of the earth? Both science and the Bible have something to say about these questions, but sometimes the two seem to conflict. Do they really conflict? The authors propose that these and other questions of origins can only be resolved by carefully considering both the data of Scripture and the data of science. Newman and Phillips both have doctorates in astrophysics and advanced degrees in biblical studies.
2007 (Rev.)
Book ## Newman, Neil Muhammad, Qur’an & Islam An attempt is made to integrate information from the Sira traditions, Qur’anic research and many other sources to obtain a better understanding of the origins and development of Islam. 1996
Book ## Newquist, David
Natural Science & Christian Faith This book is written for Christians and non-Christians, for scientists and non-scientists, who seek answers about how science and the Christian faith fit together. The focus is on basic issues and "conflicts" that se.em to arise as sincere men and women contemplate matters of science, faith and philosophy.  Chinese Version : 自 然科學與信仰 (2009) 2002
Book ## Pun, Pattle T.
Evolution: Nature & Scripture in Conflict? Evolution: Nature and Scripture in Conflict? Examines the historical development, the philosophical and biblical implications, and the scientific bases of the theory of evolution. It gives a critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the theory. This book also evaluates all forms of the contemporary dialogue among evangelical scholars on the issues of creation and evolution and should help the read make an intelligent decision in the current debate on the teaching of creation and evolution in the public school 2002
Book ## Wiester Genesis Connection The creation-evolution controversy is something of a culture war, being waged today in the classrooms, courts and press. Advocates on both sides often do more to escalate the war than they do to understand each other. The author of this unique study compares the entire creation account of Genesis 1 with the latest scientific evidence, presenting the major events in the history of the cosmos, planet Earth, and life upon it.
Book ## Wonderly, Daniel E. God’s Time-Records in Ancient Sediments How old is the earth? This question is a matter of great controversy among conservative Christians, as many of them believe that the Bible requires a young earth only some few thousands of years old. Here the author gives a detailed presentation of geological evidences for an old earth, most of which are unrelated to radioactive-decay dating techniques. Wonderly, a Bible-believer himself, discusses the basis for our knowledge of God and His world, and he reviews various responses by Christians to geologic evidences. 1977
Book ## Wonderly, Daniel E.
Neglect of Geologic Data This book evaluates problematic statements made by young-earth creationist authors in the light of well-established data and principles of sedimentary geology. Subjects discussed include ancient erosion surfaces, great thicknesses of strata, rock formation processes, absent strata, rapid burials, fossil distribution, ecological zoning, evaporites, and cyclic strata. This work also attempts to enlist creationists in a serious study of the actual characteristics of the earth's sedimentary strata. 1987
Research Report RR 1 Newman, Robert C. The Historicity of the Biblical Narratives of Easter Week This is the positive presentation of a debate on the resurrection, which took place at Cornell University in the spring of 1980. We respond to standard arguments against the miraculous. We compare the New Testament documents with other ancient histories. The details of Easter week are sketched, noting the overlap and uniqueness of the four Gospel accounts.
Research Report RR 2 Newman, Robert C. The Synoptic Problem: Handling both Internal & External Evidence Matthew and Luke are often thought to have copied much of their material from Mark, even though this solution involves rejecting the early traditions regarding their origins. But how can these traditions square with the internal evidence on which the dominant two-document theory was built? Here we suggest a solution which does justice to both the internal and external evidence. 1990
Research Report RR 3 Chinn &  Newman, Robert C. Demystifying the Controversy over the TR & the KJV The main arguments used by proponents of the Textus Receptus and/or the King James Version as the only acceptable Bible are examined and seen to be fallacious. The KJV and the TR suffer from the same "problems" as the Alexandrian text and its modern translations. Some suggestions are made regarding what appear to be the real reasons lying behind the heated advocacy of the TR and KJV. 1990
Research Report RR 4 Marchant The Census of Quirinius Critics have objected to every statement of fact in the census account of Luke 2:1-5. Here the critical view is analyzed with special attention to Quirinius' association with this census. A false correlation by critics between Luke's narrative and a later census described by Josephus seems to be the error involved. Although as yet no independent confirmation of Luke's census has turned up, similar events from the same period and locale substantiate every statement of his account. 1980
Research Report RR 5 Dunzweiler Are the Bibles in Our Possession Inspired? Various views of the nature of biblical inspiration are sketched, and the Bible is seen to support the organic view. How does inspiration apply to copies beyond the autographs? A quality which we may call "inspiredness," which is a result of inspiration, is present in the copies to the extent that they approximate the autographs. Thus, one can properly claim to preach the Word of God today. 1981
Research Report RR 6 Newman, Robert C. The New Testament Model of the Messiah Various attempts were made in the centuries following the completion of the Old Testament to understand its prophecies regarding the coming Messiah -- by the rabbis, the Qumran community, the authors of the apocalyptic literature, and the writers of the New Testament. Here these attempts are compared with the Old Testament data to show the striking superiority of the New Testament model in fitting certain paradoxical features. 1988
Research Report RR 7 Hoover The Apologetics of Francis Schaeffer Some strengths and weaknesses of Schaeffer's apologetic approach are analyzed. Various criticisms of Schaeffer are discussed. Though Schaeffer's diagnoses sometimes miss their targets, he brings us face-to-face with the need of working for a culturally-deep Christianity. 1981
Research Report RR 8 Grossman The Rapture: Before or After the Tribulation? A fresh study of (1) the relationship of dispensationalism to the rapture question, (2) the nature of the tribulation, (3) the doctrine of imminency, (4) the New Testament evidence of eschatological chronology, and (5) a post-tribulational proposal. 1981
Research Report RR 9 Newman, Robert C. The Time of the Messiah Historical sources from the first two centuries AD indicate that the Messiah was expected to appear somewhere around that time in fulfillment of some Old Testament prophecy. We suggest this prophecy was that found in Daniel 9, verses 24-27. By taking the "weeks" or "sevens" of this prophecy to be the Old Testament seven-year land use cycle, the result points to Jesus as the fulfillment of this prophecy. 1981
Research Report RR 10 Bossard, David C.
Information & Order in the Universe Secular models for the origin of life are probed. Some fundamental concepts of mathematical probability and information theory are reviewed. These are applied to recent findings in genetics. 1982
Research Report RR 11 Hoover For the Sake of Argument (Van Til) In this essay, one major school of apologetics -- Presuppositionalism -- is taken up by assessing its logical structure in the writings of its most well-known representative, Cornelius Van Til. The author's conclusion with regard to Van Til's presuppositionalism is that the Christian's apologetic task has been greatly frustrated, in effect, by the replacement of that task with an obscure philosophy about reason-giving. 1982
Research Report RR 12 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Proposed Creationist Alternative A series of four lectures which suggest a way in which both Biblical and scientific data concerning the nature of God's creative activity can be synthesized in a unified creationist view as an alternative to evolutionism. 1983
Research Report RR 13 Newman, Robert C. Council of Jamnia & the OT Canon A basic feature of most liberal theories of the Old Testament canon is an alleged council held at Jamnia about AD 90 which is supposed to have canonized, or at least finalized, the Writings or Hagiographa, the third division of the Hebrew Old Testament. In this paper -- a reprint of the article appearing in the Westminster Theological Journal 38 (Spring, 1976) -- the Talmudic evidence for such a council is surveyed. It is concluded that there is no real evidence for such a council nor for any binding canonical decisions at that time. Instead there appears to have existed a consensus on the content of the Old Testament in the first century AD which was already ancient at that time. 1983
Research Report RR 14 Bloom, John
Hosea's Adulterous Wife Hosea chapter 3 contains one of the most striking of all Biblical prophecies: The detailed prediction of six prominent sociological features which have characterized the Israelite people since their dispersion in 70 AD. While this prophecy is obscured by many translations and allegorical interpretations, or dismissed by higher critical analysis, its clarity becomes evident when the parallelisms between the Hosea-Gomer and God-Israel relationships are considered. As a part of this comparison, a historical survey of the prophecy's fulfillment to date is also presented. 1982
Research Report RR 15 Newman, Robert C. Critical Examination of Modern Cosmological Theories Basic scientific data on the nature of the universe are presented. These include: the structure and energy sources of stars, stellar distances, Olber's paradox, galaxies and their redshifts, cosmic distance scales, quasars, and the three degree blackbody radiation. Various cosmologies, both secular and Christian, are tested by this data. 1982
Research Report RR 16 Wonderly Coral Reefs & Related Carbonate Structures Evidence is abundant in the geologic literature that the earth is quite old, though this is typically overlooked or disregarded by young earth creationists. Many large, biologically built, in situ structures are found throughout the world in limestone and dolostone formations, such as modern and ancient coral atolls, the Grand Bahama Bank, and fossilized hardgrounds and stromatolites. 1983
Research Report RR 17 Neidhardt Open-Endedness of Scientific Truth An example from the history of science is given that illustrates how scientific truth is always found not to be closed but contingent and open. Arguments are given to support this position based upon: (a) the relevance of Gödel’s theorem to scientific theorizing. (b) the concreteness of nature, and (c) the fact that both cosmic and biological evolution lead to the emergence of new structures in nature that are characterized by greater complexity. 1983
Research Report RR 18 Neidhardt Personal Knowledge A popularized summary of Michael Polanyi's epistemology of science is presented in conjunction with a number of communication-oriented models of individual and group scientific exploration. This material is used to provide a perspective in which scientific knowledge is seen to have a personal component whose structure it shares in common with other human activities such as art, philosophy and religion.
Research Report RR 19 Newman, Robert C. Critique of Sagan's "Cosmos" A slightly revised version of a talk given at Cornell University, November 13, 1981. A tape recording of the session, including the question and answer period following, is available as an mp3 from the IBRI website: Sagan's Cosmos is characterized as evangelism for secular humanism. His treatment of Christianity is examined. Weaknesses in his oscillating big-bang cosmology are noted, as well as problems faced by a naturalistic view of the origin of life. Evidence is given which allows us to make a rational choice between secular humanism and Christianity. 1984
Research Report RR 20 Neidhardt Participatory Nature of Modern Science Descartes and Galileo were instrumental in starting modern science by their commitment to a method of investigation in which the detached observer first observes and then manipulates physical reality. This paradigm of detachment has been the model for scientific objectivity despite its inability to function well when applied to the social sciences and the fact that the creative researcher in the physical sciences often ignores its rules by allowing himself (or herself) to be guided by non-detached intellectual passions, that is, personal and community (scientific) standards of rational beauty, unity and simplicity. But recent developments in the philosophy of science, quantum physics and cosmology have greatly weakened the validity of this paradigm, for the scientist is now believed to be always an active participator with the universe; indeed, human consciousness may even be a necessary condition for our universe’s existence. This newly emerging paradigm of active participation has a number of striking implications for and resonances with Judaic-Christian theism. These implications and resonances are explored. 1984
Research Report RR 21 Newman, Robert C. Some Perspectives on the Image of God in Man Using the various pictures the Bible provides to help us visualize God, we see that humanity in God's image is taught in many passages rather than just the few which use the words "image" or "likeness." A new and exciting approach for presenting doctinal theology to laity. 1984
Research Report RR 22 Hoover Gordon Clark's Extraordinary View of Men & Things Gordon Clark is an uncommon presuppositionalist. Dating roughly from the publication of his Wheaton Lectures in 1968, he has increasingly stressed the complete impossibility of empirically acquired knowledge. According to Clark, the Bible, and only the Bible, can be known. All observation based truth-claims and all inductive arguments are logically worthless for apologetic purposes. This essay attempts to follow the progression in Clark's thought which leads to such a thoroughgoing skepticism (with regard to a knowledge of the contemporary world). 1984
Research Report RR 23 Newman, Robert C. Evolution-Religion & the Genesis Account In the McLean vs Arkansas trial over teaching creation, leaders of the mainline denominations opposed teaching creation in the public schools. Why was this? We suggest that their opposition was theological rather than scientific, since these leaders advocate an evolution-religion known as theological liberalism. 1984
Research Report RR 24 Newman, Robert C. The Return of Christ: Interpreting Revelation by Allusions Revelation is the most difficult book in the New Testament, yet it is filled with Old Testament allusions which are especially helpful in understanding it. The use of such allusions for interpretation is illustrated in Rev 19:11-21. These allusions, plus other contextual considerations, support a premillennial eschatology. 1985
Research Report RR 25 Dunzweiler Regeneration & Indwelling in the OT Period Were Old Testament believers regenerated and indwelt by the Holy Spirit? Recent opinion is examined. Tighter definitions of these ministries are proposed. Apparently all Old Testament believers did experience these ministries in some sense. 1985
Research Report RR 26 Bloom, John
Finding Truth in Religion Given the countless variety of religions being propagated today, is there any means to determine which one(s), if any, have any basis for adhering to them for other than cultural, philosophical or emotional grounds? Is there any external-to-the-believer, testable evidence that any religion is true? A simple test proposed by the God of the Bible allows the man-on-the-street to distinguish truth from error quickly and effectively, and gives an objective foundation for Biblical Christianity in contrast with other religious systems. 1985
Research Report RR 27 Cain, Dallas
Creation & Capron's Explanatory Interpretation Hugh Capron of England (c 1902) was a scientist whose analysis of Genesis One gave rise to a new scheme that is compatible with science. He portrays the record as teaching that the divine commands were not fulfilled instantaneously on the days on which they were issued, but instead were fulfilled over long periods of time. The work is in the commands, and the days relate to the commands, not to the fulfillments. 1986
Research Report RR 28 Neidhardt Faith: The Unrecognized Partner of Science & Religion This paper examines the nature of faith as an integral component of both scientific and religious understanding. The thesis is illustrated with examples taken from the history and practice of science. Its implications are discussed with respect to the interrelations of science, religion and society. Lastly, a communication model of human understanding is developed and schematically illustrated. 1986
Research Report RR 29 Ronning Exodus 6:3 & Patriarchal Knowledge of the Name "YHWH" Exodus 6:3 has often been read as though the patriarchs had no knowledge of the name YHWH before the time of Moses. This interpretation became one foundation for subdividing the first five books of the Bible into contradictory sources J, E, D, and P. Several alternative interpretations are examined. An early textual error seems to be the best explanation. 1986
Research Report RR 30 Hoover Epistemic Bad Faith & Mere Knowledge A major preoccupation in the history of western philosophy has been the theory of knowledge. The epistemologist, during this lengthy and desultory enterprise, has posed several important questions: How does one know? If one cannot prove what one claims to know, does one really know? Does knowing imply knowing that one knows? In this paper the thesis advanced is that man has been epistemically suited to the environment in which God has placed him. Man has been given a finite but reliable noetic endowment.
Research Report RR 31 Bossard, David C. Beyond the Shadow of a Doubt During the 1960's some computer scientists thought that it was just a matter of time before scientists understood the reasoning process of the human brain. Today, they are not so sure! This talk reviews some of the results from the field of artificial intelligence, and the reasons why the human reasoning process remains elusive. Some remarks will also be offered concerning the nature of proof as practiced in the Bible and in theology. 1986
Research Report RR 32 Kutilek Erasmus: His Greek Text & His Theology Veneration for Erasmus' Greek New Testament text seems to be proportional to one's ignorance of its history. Erasmus' work on his text is examined, and reasons are given for its needed revision. If Westcott & Hort's text is unreliable because of their theology, Erasmus' theology is less orthodox than theirs! 1995
Research Report RR 33 MacRae, Allan A. Charles Darwin: The Man & the Myth Darwin did not originate evolution, but he did give it scientific respectability. Its rapid acceptance was partly a pent-up reaction to the biblical worldview of the Great Awakening, partly the effective combination of Huxley as fighter and Darwin as quiet background thinker. 1986
Research Report RR 34 Bloom Unleavened Bread & the Dedication of the Firstborn When faced with a biblical passage which contains repetitive portions that are difficult to harmonize, source-critical methodology attributes the awkwardness to a blundering editor who was piecing together the fragments of scattered traditions, while the literary school "reads between the lines" seeking a profound stylistic reason for the problem. The author shows here, with a typical enigmatic passage, that such difficulties can be better resolved by noting that an economy of words was undoubtedly used to record the historical events described therein. 1987
Research Report RR 35 Newman, Robert C. Synoptic Harmonization Five sample passages in the Gospels are considered to point up the sorts of problems often raised against inerrancy in such materials. In response, some principles are noted from history and history writing regarding the complexity of history, the effect of differing viewpoints and emphases, and matters of ordering and compression in narrative. The phenomenon of parallel passages in the work of a single author, Luke, is also helpful in suggesting why and how we should harmonize such accounts. 1987
Research Report RR 36 Newman, Robert C. Self-Reproducing Automata & the Origin of Life The minimal complexity needed for life is examined by assuming that the simplest living thing is a self-reproducing automaton. The work of Von Neumann, Codd and Langton in designing mathematical models for such automata is briefly reviewed, and Langton's very simple self-reproducing automaton is described in detail. The complexity of Langton's automaton strongly suggests that life is designed rather than accidental. 1987
Research Report RR 37 Newman, Robert C. et al The Status of Evolution as a Scientific Theory Evolution is frequently called a fact by its proponents. Here, various standard definitions of "evolution" are considered. The evidential status of evolution according to each of these definitions is evaluated. 1990
Research Report RR 38 McLaughlin Science, Logic & the Thinking Christian This article is intended to make Christians stronger apologists and non-Christians re-examine their beliefs. Ten questions are addressed with classical logic; supplementary material has been relegated to the references so the reader can focus entirely on the critical arguments. This article is not a source of original thought; instead, it is a compendium of critical arguments uncluttered by supplementary material and excessive personal opinion. The reader must consciously refute these arguments in order to reach conclusions which differ from those given. 1990
Research Report RR 39 Newman, Robert C. Jesus, The Testimony of Prophecy & History Among the predictions found in the Old Testament, those concerning Israel's promised Messiah are especially important. The Messiah, according to the Bible, will one day come and rescue his people from their oppressors. He will bring in a golden age. Israel will become the chief nation and Jerusalem the world's capital. Mankind will be ruled with justice, and oppression will cease. All will live in safety on their own property and enjoy the fruits of their own labors. Here we examine a number of these prophecies. We suggest that the evidence of the prophecies themselves and of subsequent history so far indicate that: (1) If the Messiah has come, he is Jesus; and (2) The Messiah has come. 1990
Research Report RR 40 P. Phillips Are the Days of Genesis Longer than 24 Hours? Biblical evidence is presented that the "days" of the Genesis creation account were longer than 24 hours. This evidence includes (1) the usage of the words translated "day," "morning," and "evening"; and (2) the narrative of the activities taking place on the sixth day in Genesis 2. 1991
Research Report RR 41 Zaspel Continuing Relevance of Divine Law A study of the law of God as a rule of life. Biblical evidence is examined to show: (1) a distinction exists between the law of God, the law of Moses, and the law of Christ; (2) the law of Christ is binding for believers today. The author, Fred Zaspel holds a Ph.D. in historical theology from the Free University of Amsterdam. He is currently a pastor at the Reformed Baptist Church of Franconia, PA 1997
Research Report RR 42 Bossard, David C. God's Law, Creation Law How do God's laws as set down in Scripture relate to the laws that govern his Creation? This report asserts that many of the laws and admonitions of Scripture, which are viewed by the world as optional or even arbitrary, and therefore candidates for social experimentation, reveal essential laws of human conduct that were laid down during Creation and are needed to maintain its stability and well-being. It is argued that these creation laws form a valid basis for Christian involvement in secular institutions that is consistent with the spirit of the constitutional separation of church and state. 1995
Research Report RR 43 Cain, Dallas
Hindsight Translation of Genesis One This is primarily a literature search on Creation in Genesis One. The results are a surprise. In hindsight, the time is right for a first-ever update to the science in our English translations of Genesis One. The problems needing update are localized in the four stages pertaining to our environment: light, sky, land-sea, and sun-moon-stars. There is no call for any change to the Hebrew text, but only for the translation. Changes are drawn from respectable literature on Genesis One, and are all within the latitude permitted by the Hebrew text. 1996
Research Report RR 44 Wonderly Genesis 11 & Archaeological Evidence… There are good reasons to see Genesis chapter 11 and archaeological data from Paleolithic peoples as compatible. Abundant evidences for such people inhabiting both the Americas and Europe more than ten thousand years ago are here surveyed. It is suggested that these people fit between the disastrous judgment of Babel and the birth of Abraham. Archaeological evidences for the true humanity of Neanderthal man are also presented. 1996
Research Report RR 45 Kutilek Westcott & Hort vs Textus Receptus What is a better text for the New Testament? Isn't it one which is closer to the original autographs? The texts of Westcott & Hort and the Textus Receptus are characterized and evaluated by various tests. 1996
Research Report RR 46 Bossard, David C. Sharp Points: God's Conspiracy… God loves the inquiring mind. Intellectual inquiry is the supreme activity that reflects the Image of God that he placed in humans at Creation. But the modern world of ideas is in turmoil. Recent book titles  point to a crisis in modern intellectual thought. Are these crises self-inflicted by Twentieth Century intellectual hubris, or are they sharp points: goads "hard to kick against" (reminiscent of Paul's experience) placed by God in the way of "progress," to remind a doggedly secular world of his presence, his active interest in his Creation, and the truth of Biblical claims? Sharp point areas noted here include: evidence for intelligent design in Creation, the Image of God in humans, God's sustaining activity in Creation, the moral nature of humans, and the attempt to define a "secular" society. 1990
Research Report RR 47 McCullough Meteorites & the Maker's Mortar There is widespread scientific agreement (fitting Genesis 1:2) that the early Earth was covered by water. Some meteorites contain significant amounts of water, especially carbonaceous chondrites. When stony meteorites are subjected to extreme shock pressures and heating as would occur on impact, they give up their water and other volatiles. As a result the early Earth, which formed from an accretion process involving the impact of meteors, acquired a hydrous atmosphere and magma ocean. As the earth cooled off, the water condensed to form an ocean. Ultimately, this water was used in the formation of the earth beneath our feet. 1999
Research Report RR 48 Hoover Hope, Language & the Brain The worldviews of both eastern mysticism and western secular humanism deny the meaningfulness of cosmic (or eschatological) hope. By contrast, Christianity fundamentally refuses the normality of death as extinguishing human existence. Death, it insists, is a curse. The purpose of this essay is to explain the character of a hope that addresses this curse. Along the way, linguistic competence (with its architectural embodiment in the brain) is discussed as the amazing and uniquely human ability to track personal historical meaning.
Research Report RR 49 Bossard, David C. A Physicist Looks at Creation Day One A physicist looking at the Bible's description of Creation Day One can see a remarkable agreement with the modern physicist's story of how matter was created. This report describes that story, why physicists believe their creation story is close to correct, and where some secular physicists may differ from the Bible's statements about creation. 2000
Research Report RR 50 Bossard, David C. Chemical Building Blocks of Life The laws of physics and chemistry are so right that they seem to be designed to support life. Water, carbon, nitrogen and other elements have just the right properties. Subtle electronic forces are able to carry out the life functions spontaneously, given rightly configured molecules. The temperature is right. Creation is fit to support a living cell. Now on to the actual building of life. In this talk, we look at the construction plan for all living cells to see how it is done. Why is it done this way? Is another way possible? (yes!) How hard would it be to build another kind of life? By considering these matters, we can gain an appreciation of how complex the task of creating life is, and begin to face the problems inherent in the view that life is a random product of undirected natural causes. 2001
Research Report RR 51 Bossard, David C. A Fit Place to Live: Creation of the Biosphere The universe was designed to make a place for humans to live. In an earlier talk we saw that it took about 10 billion years after the creation of the universe to prepare the ingredients to form the sun and the earth, and that in this process there are many indications of careful design that anticipate human habitation. This talk picks up at that point and looks at the next 4 billion years, and how the earth was made ready for the arrival of complex life -- plants and animals -- about 600 million years ago. We will see how microbial life figured in this preparation, and discuss the problems that the fossil record of this early life pose to natural evolution 2003
Research Report RR 52 Phillips, Elaine
Re-Presentation of 'Are the Bibles…' Following a descriptive definition of the doctrine of inspiration, the biblical bases for the doctrine are presented, and necessary qualifications proposed. The concept is then lodged within the wider framework of revelation, and the applicability of inspiration beyond the autographs (originals) is considered. It is proposed that a quality of inspiredness, the result of the act of inspiration, inheres in the apographs (copies) to the extent that they faithfully approximate the autographs. The practical consideration of the nature of the biblical text as we have it today is sketched by following the text through seven stages from God's revelation of the Word to its proclamation, noting possible sources of error. It is concluded that we may properly speak of proclaiming God's Word today. 2004
Research Report RR 53 Bossard, David C. Geology Before Darwin The Golden age of geology bloomed in the decades just prior to Darwin’s 1859 Origin of the Species. Geologists could read for the first time the details of how God created a place for mankind. Opposition came both from religious leaders and from secular opponents, who saw their cherished notions challenged. The opposition was answered by painstakingly careful argument, which by the time of Darwin was seen by some prominent geologists to give strong evidence of God’s hand at work. After Darwin, though, this evidence in favor of a creator largely vanished from mainstream geology. In this talk we will discuss the state of geology just prior to Darwin and then ask whether the conclusions reached at that time were valid and why they disappeared from the literature after 1859. 2003
Research Report RR 54 Marsh Pre-Cambrian Carbon Although geological evidence for green vegetation in the pre-Cambrian period is rare it does exist unequivocally in the form of anthracite, which is derived only from such vegetation. This indicates that green vegetation was present on the Earth's surface during this geological period. Other pre-Cambrian carbon deposits are also critically discussed. Some possible types of pre-Cambrian green vegetation are then described and the whole linked with the Genesis one account. 2004
Research Report RR 55 Bossard, David C. Rise & Fall of Scientific Naturalism Scientific naturalism is the view that our world is wholly a result of natural processes that can be explained by ordinary science, without the need to postulate intervention by a Creator. There have always been those who held this view, but with Copernicus and the rise of modern science, it came to be the common view among scientists, and was dominant by 1900. However in recent years, science has uncovered ever stronger evidence of design embedded in the very fabric of the natural universe, in the geological record of Earth's history, and in the nature of life itself. This talk summarizes the evidence that led to the rise of scientific naturalism, and how discoveries of science have challenged that view in recent years and decades. 2005
Research Report RR 56 Newman, Robert C. Rumors of Angels Most discussions of God's action in nature since about 1900 have ignored angelic activity, perhaps in reaction to Andrew Dickson White's History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. Here we take another look at the biblical data on angels, and then consider what scientific data might be relevant in the light of recent interest in intelligent design. 2005
Research Report RR 57 Bossard, David C. The Stones Cry Out The development of modern geology in the early 1800s challenged traditional Biblical interpretation in a way that no other advance in science had. Over the centuries, there had been many philosophical challenges to Biblical revelation -- the nascent higher criticism of the Biblical text, and many Christian and secular world views as (then) recent examples -- but these are all based on philosophical particulars that cannot be refuted objectively. Never before had such an extensive, sustained and comprehensive assault on tradition been fortified with such an abundance of irrefutable factual data, which could be tested and affirmed by all, even those with radically clashing world views. How, then, did devout Christians process this challenge? This paper describes the responses of a number of contemporary writers who held firmly to the divine inspiration of the Biblical text -- including prominent British and American geologists and theologians of the period. 2006
Research Report RR 58 Gauch Recent Transitions in Natural Theology Natural theology pursues knowledge of God based on public evidence accessible to all persons by virtue of our shared human endowments of reason and sense perception. For millennia, natural theology has supported merely generic theism. However, five new projects in natural theology are more ambitious, pursuing distinctively Christian theism. They concern church witness, Bible prophecy, Bible narrative, Trinitarian metaphysics, and Christ's resurrection. These projects can be combined in a strong cumulative case, although it is also important to have individual projects that singly carry great evidential weight. The case for reported miracles, which are so essential in the Biblical worldview, is strategically strengthened by empirical evidence for testable miracles. Several open questions are discussed that merit further exploration.
Research Report RR 59 Eckelmann & Phillips When is the Resurrection of the Just? Will Christians go through the period known as the Great Tribulation? If so, predictions to that effect in the Scriptures will serve to warn us to be prepared and will provide that we may be strengthened by the knowledge that this is part of the detailed plan of our Lord. If Christians will not go through the Great Tribulation, it will be comforting to know it. Surely, the Lord has permitted His people to suffer at times in the past, and we have no right to suppose ourselves any better than they. We can only know what is in store for the Lord's people, therefore, by specific revelation on this subject. It is our prayer that the Lord will bless this effort to understand the Scriptures pertinent to this question. 2007
Occasional Paper OP 1 Newman, Robert C. Anthological Exegesis in the New Testament Liberal commentators on the New Testament have often suggested that some of its writers have occasionally engaged in interpretation of the Old Testament that is very far-fetched. Indeed, there are a number of passages in which New Testament exegesis of the Old is rather surprising and puzzling. Here we use a phenomenon often found in Jewish writings of the period -- which Andre Robert and Daniel Patte call "anthological style" -- to suggest a solution. We propose that the writers in these cases are interpreting one passage in the light of one or more other passages, and noting how each passage casts light on the other(s). Date
Occasional Paper OP 2 Newman, Robert C. Evangelicals and Crackpot Science Because of the tension which has developed between the scientific and the evangelical communities in the past century and a half, Bible believers are often (rightly or wrongly) suspicious of the discoveries and theorizing of modern science. This has led to a rather widespread attraction to theories viewed as crackpot by scientists and other educated people. Some examples are discussed and strategies proposed to protect Christians from looking unnecessarily foolish before the watching world. Date
Occasional Paper OP 3 Newman, Robert C. The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid? What was the star of Bethlehem mentioned in Matthew's account of the birth of Jesus? Many suggestions have been made over the centuries, ranging from various astronomical objects such as a nova, a supernova, a comet, or a planetary conjunction, to some sort of supernatural object like the Shekinah glory, or even totally imaginary -- the invention of the Gospel writer. Here we suggest that the phenomenon was real, but that it was a hybrid, featuring both natural and supernatural elements -- a combination of a very striking and rare conjunction of planets, together with a supernatural guiding object something like the pillar of fire that led the Israelites in the wilderness. Note: See also the Bethlehem Star lecture.
Occasional Paper OP 4 Newman, Robert C. Cracking The Bible Code For some years now, several Israeli mathematicians and rabbis have been investigating the idea that the Bible contains "code words" hidden in its text. Obviously, God is capable of doing something of this sort should He choose to. The question is, do we have any good evidence that He has chosen to do so? Here, we look at the popular presentation of this idea by Michael Drosnin, in his Bible Code, sketching what he has done, and asking ourselves, Are there any Biblical problems with this?
Occasional Paper OP 5 Newman, Robert C. How Human Sexuality Reveals God An investigation of the Biblical warrant for the idea that human sexuality was designed by God to picture the sort of intimate relation which He wishes to have with human beings. We suggest that this is pictured most clearly in a very good marriage, and explore how this is distorted in the various forms of sexual activity which fall short of this. Date
Occasional Paper OP 6 Newman, Robert C. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe: C.S. Lewis' Use of  Mooreeffoc C. S. Lewis' Narnia Chronicles are a nice example of the use of Mooreeffoc in novels – here in a series written for children. What is mooreeffoc? Some smaller examples are given, following the plot of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Then several overarching examples are discussed, which occur throughout the Narnia series. Date
Occasional Paper OP 7 Granville &  Newman, Robert C. The Fourth Dimension & the Bible What is the fourth dimension? Does a fourth spatial dimension really exist? A look at multi-dimensional geometry, time as a fourth dimension in special relativity, a possibility of extra dimensions in modern physics, and extra dimensions as a suggested explanation for the phenomena of the unseen world in various Biblical passages. Date
Occasional Paper OP 8 Newman, Robert C. The Kingdom Parables in Matthew, Prophetic Sketch...? The seven parables of the kingdom in Matthew 13 are here assumed to have been delivered by Jesus on one particular occasion, rather than assembled by Matthew from Jesus' teaching at various times. Only the first, second and last of these parables are interpreted by Jesus, so we are left to speculate about the significance of parables 3, 4 and 5, 6. These are, however, obviously in pairs. The internal structure of the seven suggests a chronological sequence. Date
Occasional Paper OP 9 Newman, Robert C. Perspective Transformation by Means of Parables A study of Jesus' parables as they function to make contact with his audience, to capture their attention, and seek to influence his listeners' perspective on what life is all about and what attitudes we should have in order that we may be a blessing rather than a curse to those around us. We look at Jesus' techniques for presenting a different perspective than that of his audience in both his analog parables and his example parables, how he criticizes people's perspective both explicitly and implicitly, and how he uses absurdity, surprise and mystery to engage with them. Date
Occasional Paper OP 10 Newman, Robert C. Exegeting Nature and Scripture There are significant parallels between the two activities of interpreting nature and interpreting the Bible, and both are influenced by one's theology (even if we think we do not have a theology!). Here we sketch various diverse approaches to these matters, especially the theories and practices of interpretation espoused by the more orthodox Christian scientists and theologians. What are God's intentions both in nature and Scripture? Can theology squelch research? We make some suggestions for how we think interpretation of both nature and Scripture should proceed. Date
Occasional Paper OP 11 Newman, Robert C. Birth Pains of the Messiah The concept of birth pains as a figure for eschatological troubles is investigated in the New Testament, the Old Testament and rabbinic literature, especially as this may relate to Jesus' comment in Matthew 24:8. Why is this figure of birth pains used? Does it have any connection with the phenomenology of birth contractions? Do we have any biblical warrant for when these troubles might begin? How do they function as signs of the end? Is there any reason from current disaster phenomena to think that the end is near? Date
Occasional Paper OP12 Newman, Robert C. Is the Bible Scientifically Reliable? An article intended for a book directed to Jewish intellectuals ─ in this case, doctors ─ suggesting that we have very good evidence for the scientific reliability of the Bible. We first discuss the matter of what we mean by “scientific,” then look at evidence from cosmology, design of the universe and earth’s cosmic environment, the age of the earth and universe, a suggested correlation between Genesis chapter one and planetology, and the matter of evolution, including human evolution. Date
Occasional Paper OP13 Newman, Robert C. Public Theology and Evidence for God ?? AMAZON LINK INCORRECT??
Occasional Paper OP 14 Harris, R. Laird
Prophecy, Illustration & Typology How does the New Testament interpret the Old Testament? Can its use of the Old Testament be justified? It is important to determine as far as possible what that OT section meant to its original readers and how the NT used the passage in its explanation. The subject is a formidable one for brief treatment because the NT uses the OT in a variety of ways. In this paper, we suggest that various usages of the NT should be identified. There is a place for the recognition of direct prophecy and fulfillment. Also the OT worship did include types not fully explained except by a future reference. Besides these items, we would claim there are numerous instances where the OT is quoted as illustrative and the value of the illustration would not be apparent to the OT author, but only to us who have seen the NT teaching. Some examples of these various categories are given. Date
Occasional Paper OP 15 Vannoy, J. Robert
Divine Revelation & History in the OT There is perhaps no issue in contemporary biblical and theological studies that is more important than a correct understanding of the relation between divine revelation and history, or the relation between faith and history. The rise of anti-supernaturalism in recent centuries has led many to reject objective forms of revelation in favor of subjective ones, thus denying the historical accuracy of much biblical narrative. Here we examine these problems by a brief survey of trends in Old Testament studies over the past century, focusing on three men who have been most influential in Old Testament criticism, Julius Wellhausen, Hermann Gunkel and Gerhard von Rad. Date
Occasional Paper OP 16 Longacre Who Sold Joseph into Egypt? Critical scholars have regularly divided up the Genesis 37 narrative of Joseph being sold as a slave into Egypt. They claim that variations, tensions and contradictions in the story point to an account which has been assembled from at least two divergent sources, J and E. They see here a Reuben story and a Judah story, disagreement on whether the slave traders were Ishmaelites or Midianites, and the use of variant names Israel and Jacob for the father of Joseph and his brothers. Here we suggest -- using discourse analysis -- that these features can be demonstrated to fall within the range of effective narrative style by a single author. If the author used sources, these are completely irrecoverable and probably bore no resemblance to the traditional JEDP of source criticism. Date
Occasional Paper OP 17 Gilchrist Towards a Covenantal Definition of Tôrâ The Hebrew word tôrâ has traditionally been translated into English as "law." This is not totally satisfactory, as it also regularly has a connotation of "instruction." Considerable attention has been devoted to its possible etymology, but no clear consensus has been reached. Here we look at the use of the word in a variety of biblical contexts, taking the traditional position on authorship and date rather than that of modern form-critical views. Tôrâ is investigated in covenantal, priestly, wisdom, juridical, and prophetic contexts to construct a biblical definition of the word. Date
Occasional Paper OP 18 Schultz Sacrifice in the God-Man Relationship in the Pentateuch The significance and importance of bringing an offering to God is gradually unfolded as God makes himself known to the human race. What motivated god-fearing people before the time of Moses to bring an offering to God? What significance did their offerings have for them individually in their relationship with God? Rather than reading in the fuller revelation of subsequent centuries, we here let the text and context of the earlier passages determine these matters. Date
Occasional Paper OP 19 Smick Israel's Struggle with the Religions of Canaan Until about a century ago, most of our information on Canaanite religion came from the Bible. The discovery of the cuneiform tablets from Ras Shamra (Ugarit) opened doors of understanding that had long been closed. These texts provided an important mythological literature that gave the names and functions of the Canaanite gods and also much information on Canaanite society. Here we sketch some of this material and how the Israelites responded to it. Date
Occasional Paper OP 20 Peterson Christ's Death as an Example in the New Testament The biblical writers used a variety of images to convey the meaning of the work of Christ. Jesus is pictured as the great high priest in Hebrews, as the second Adam in Romans, as the victor who defeats Satan in 1 Corinthians, and as the legal substitute in Galatians. One motif which has been overplayed by some and neglected by others is Christ’s death as an example, Here over a dozen passages are sketched in which this theme occurs. Date
Occasional Paper OP 21 Mare The Work Ethic of the Gospels and Acts The 20th century has seen a continuing shift away from the work ethic that held prominence for some centuries, which Daniel Yankelovich characterized as "a determining force in Western history." In recent decades this has been replaced by a "psychology of affluence," which includes (1) an "expect more-of-everything" outlook; (2) assuming having more is an entitlement; (3) taking for granted a bountiful economy; and (4) a concept of duty to self at the cost of moral obligations to others. Here we examine what Jesus and the early disciples taught on these matters. Date
Occasional Paper OP 22 Grounds The Bible and the Modern Mind Is the modern mind unable to accept the biblical view of reality even with "the best will in the world"? How valid a concept is the "modern mind"? When did it arise? We suggest that in some sense the modern mind goes back to human rebellion at the beginning, and is what the New Testament calls the "carnal mind." To be genuinely modern, one must think and live biblically. Date
Occasional Paper OP 23 Lewis Three Sides to Every Story: Relating the Absolutes of General and Special Revelation to Relativists In spite of the pervasive relativism in our world, I propose that there are two basic ways to recognize truths valid for all people of all times, all places, and all possible cultural backgrounds. First, by analysis of meaningful knowledge and of responsible moral conduct, people discover absolutes of general revelation. Second, by verification and disverification, people discover and interpret the absolutes of special revelation. Here I seek to interpret and apply Edward John Carnell’s hypothesis-verification approach to the problem of relativism, answering the view that people cannot know any objectively valid truth. Date
Occasional Paper OP 24 Paul Time and Historical Significance The special focus on "time" in history is twofold. Communities attribute direction to the time process: "chosen people", "salvation history", expectation of a Kingdom of God or a classless society, or faith in social and technological progress. A study of traditions also reveals a variety of ways in which man has understood his temporal nature and the process of time of which he is a part. Three contrasting traditions -- African, Hindu and Christian -- will be reviewed to reveal the conceptual-set concerning time and significance which is presupposed by each. The paper concludes with a theoretical model of a modern historically conscious group which, I hope, will aid the historian in the study of the conceptual system of specific groups. Date
Occasional Paper OP 25 Wallis Reflections on the History of Premillennial Thought In the present essay I present some of my reasons, both historical and exegetical, for believing that the futurist premillennial doctrine is emerging from neglect and misrepresentation to prove itself the most stable form of Biblical eschatology, providing a satisfactory answer to a recurring historical and exegetical problem. I refer to the prevailing practice, at least up to the early nineteenth century, in both postmillennialism and premillennialism, of calculating the times and setting the date for the end of the age. Date
Occasional Paper OP 26 Taylor Church History Revisited This is an appreciative essay of the methods and applications of Allan A. MacRae as a teacher of church history. We here discuss his treatment of the content of history: (1) objective realities, (2) subjective assessments, and (3) providential arrangements; his approach to history: (1) attitude, (2) appreciation, (3) animation, and (4) insight; and his application of history to the life of the church: (1) general principles, (2) problematic situations, and (3) redirection of attention. Date
Occasional Paper OP 27 Harding An Examination of Passages Cited by the Jehovah's Witnesses to Deny Jesus Is God Despite the clear teaching of the Bible that Jesus is God, Jehovah's Witnesses deny this doctrine and cite Bible passages which they say contradict this doctrine. Here we examine six of these passages which, if properly understood, can be adduced to support the view that Jesus is God. These are Revelation 3:14, Colossians 1:15, Proverbs 8:22, John 14:28, 1 Corinthians 15:28 and 1 Corinthians 11:3. Date
Occasional Paper OP 28 Young Cross Cultural Witness, Conflict and Accommodation The subject of cross cultural witness, and the matters of conflict and accommodation, are addressed from the premise that the Christian faith was supernaturally revealed in the inspired Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; and that this Word of God reveals to us the flow of redemptive history, from the creation of man to the first century's establishment of the new covenant church, as God unfolds his will for his people in various covenant arrangements in successive eras. Date
Occasional Paper OP 29 Newman, Robert C. The Blood Moon Prophecies Recently there has been much excitement regarding a series of upcoming eclipses of the moon, which are being called “blood moons.” Various interpreters claim that these point to the catching away of the church before the return of Christ, which catching away (or rapture) is predicted to occur in September of 2015. Here we examine some of the assumptions that lie behind these predictions. Date
Occasional Paper OP 30 MacRae, Allan A. The Higher Critical Assault on the Scriptures Some of the effects of the Wellhausen (or JEDP) theory on individuals, seminaries, denominations, mission agencies and western society are sketched. The various documentary theories of the 19th century culminated in that of Graf and Wellhausen. It was based on a history of theorizing about documents from which the Pentateuch was allegedly assembled, plus an evolutionary theory about Israel’s religious history. The theory claims to be able to identify the various sources by their diverse use of names, particularly the divine names; by various distinct styles; by duplications and contradictions in the narratives. The author here outlines his responses to these claims, which he develops in considerably more detail in his book JEDP: Lectures on the Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch. Date
Occasional Paper OP 31 Newman, Robert C. Jesus’ Self-Understanding According to the So-Called Q-Material New Testament scholars of the 20th century have often claimed that one of the sources used by Matthew and Luke was a lost document (usually labeled Q) which is therefore earlier and provides more reliable information about Jesus. Here we look at the materials in Matthew and Luke typically assigned to Q to see what they tell us about how Jesus viewed himself. Date
Occasional Paper OP 32 Newman, Robert C. Apologetic Motivation, Its Influences on Biblical Interpretation In defending the faith, it is possible in our zeal to distort the evidence; but we may also uncover that which would otherwise have been missed. Here we consider the various effects that apologetic motivation has actually had in the history of biblical interpretation. We will provide a brief tour of biblical exegesis, divided into early Jewish, early Christian, post-Nicene, medieval, reformation and modern, looking at materials which are explicitly apologetic. A list of effects which such motivation has produced to date will be attempted in the end. Date
Occasional Paper OP 33 Newman, Robert C. Greco-Roman Symbolism in the Book of Revelation The New Testament Book of Revelation is notable in having no direct quotations from the Old Testament, but very many allusions to the same. It appears that Revelation also has a number of allusions to the Greco-Roman culture in which the churches to whom it was originally addressed were living. A number of these have been pointed out in the past, especially by R. H. Charles in his commentary on Revelation in the International Critical Commentary, with the implication that the author was no recipient of a vision from God, but that the book is a literary production made up by the author. Here we suggest that indeed the book has such allusions, even a couple that refer to Greco-Roman pagan mythology, but that the ultimate author (God) is communicating with the original audience of Christians, most of whom were raised in pagan backgrounds. Date
Occasional Paper OP 34 Newman, Robert C. Sons of God & Daughters of Men: Ancient Interpretations of Genesis 6 The exegesis of Gen 6:2, 4 in ancient times is surveyed among extant sources, both Jewish and Christian. These interpretations are categorized as either “supernatural” or “nonsupernatural” depending upon the identification of the “sons of God.” It is observed that the interpretation of “sons of God” as angels and “Nephilim” as giants dominates. This interpretation also seems to be that of the NT, almost certainly in Jude 6 and 2 Pet 2:4, and probably in 1 Cor 11:10 and Matt 22:30. Some suggestions regarding the source of this interpretation and its validity are made. Date
Occasional Paper OP 35 Edersheim Messianic Passages in the OT An edited version of Appendix IX from Alfred Edersheim's Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Here Edersheim has collected an extensive list of passages from the Hebrew Bible which were seen as referring to the Messiah in one or more of the works of the ancient rabbinic literature. In this edited version, the only change from Edersheim's original work is to print out the biblical references in full, so that the reader can immediately see what each passage says. In this Kindle edition, foreign words have been transliterated and italicized.
Occasional Paper OP 36 Newman, Robert C. Unfulfilled Prophecy: How Near is the End? This is a transcription of a talk apparently given at Ithaca College, probably about 1988. We walk through some of the major biblical passages on the end of the age, noting both the emphasis on how it will take most people by surprise, and yet how it will be preceded by certain signs of the end. The passages examined include Jesus' Olivet Discourse in Matthew 24, Paul's supplements in 1 Timothy 3 and 2 Thessalonians 2, and the passages in Revelation 13 on the two beasts. Date
Occasional Paper OP 37 Newman, Robert C. Jewish Polemic against Christianity Jewish arguments against the truth of Christianity that are documented in the second century CE are here catalogued. These have been compiled from Jewish, Christian, and Pagan sources. They are sorted into those that are very well-attested, those that are less well-attested, and those that are only slightly attested. Date
Occasional Paper OP 38 Newman, Robert C. Presenting the Gospel to Those Who Reject Scripture Presenting the Gospel is fairly straightforward when your audience consists of those who know and accept Scripture, but even in the U.S. many do not fall into this category. Some who accept (but don't know) Scripture won't believe your message without careful study on their own, and even then they may well be inclined to reject the testimony of Scripture rather than believe what it says about themselves. But Paul has left us an example of being all things to all men that he might by all means save some. When he spoke to those who knew Scripture, he used Scripture. When he spoke to those who did not, he didn't use Scripture. How can we present the Gospel in a believable way to those who do not view the Bible as God's Word? Date
Occasional Paper OP 39 Newman, Robert C. Where is Heaven? We examine the question, "Where is heaven?" Here we look at the biblical data regarding various meanings of the term "heaven," followed by the data for the location of that heaven which is pictured as God's dwelling place. We consider four models of the location of heaven, which we label the attic model, the way-out model, the interaction model and the dimensional model. Date
Occasional Paper OP 40 Newman, Robert C. David Wilkerson's Vision and Deuteronomy 18 A paper first published in 1976 attempting to test the predictions of David Wilkerson's book The Vision (1974) against the biblical criteria for a true prophet. We consider the tests for a true prophet according to Deuteronomy 13 and 18, some short-range predictions in The Vision, and the economic situation in the few years following April 1973. A note has been added looking at Wilkerson's predictions as of November 2008. Date
Occasional Paper OP 41 Newman, Robert C. Some Comments on Healing What does the Bible have to say about healing? Some groups tell us that healing is always God's will; that it is a sin to go to medical doctors for healing; and that we will always be healed if we ask God for healing, provided that we have enough faith. Here we examine the biblical teaching on healing in response to such claims. Date
Occasional Paper OP 42 Newman, Robert C. Prophecies about the Coming Messiah An important line of evidence for the truth of Christianity for many centuries has been the fulfillment of prophecies about the coming Messiah in the person of Jesus of Nazareth. With the rise of naturalism and theological liberalism, many of these prophecies have been dismissed by claiming that early Christians invented material in the Gospels to make it look like these prophecies were fulfilled when they really weren't. Here we respond to these claims by selecting prophecies the fulfillment of which could hardly have been invented. This include the "light to the Gentiles" prophecy of Isaiah 42 and 49, the "seventy weeks" prophecy of Daniel 9, the "suffering servant" prophecy of Isaiah 53, and the "pierced one" prophecy of Psalm 22. Date
Occasional Paper OP 43 Newman, Robert C. Pacifism & Biblical Interpretation In this paper we sketch the history of pacifism in Christendom to date. Then we shall examine three important forms of such pacifism, considering each view and the arguments used to support it. We shall call these views Historic Pacifism, Liberal Pacifism, and Neo-Orthodox Pacifism. Finally we shall attempt a brief critique of each view. Date
Occasional Paper OP 44 Newman, Robert C. Testing the Truth Claims of the Charismatic Movement The charismatic movement is typically characterized by the claims that the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit given in the early church are still available and should be sought by serious Christians, and that believers after their conversion should seek a second blessing, the gift of the Holy Spirit. Three of the most notable such gifts are prophecy, healing, and tongue-speaking. In this paper, we attempt to test the modern manifestation of these three gifts, moving from the most testable (prophecy) to the least testable (tongues). Date
Occasional Paper OP 45 Newman, Robert C. Scriptural Evidence for an Old Earth Although it is commonly assumed that the Bible teaches a recent creation of the earth just a few thousand years ago, we argue here that the Scripture is open to a much earlier creation; that this is consistent with current estimates of the age of the earth from science. We consider the nature of general and special revelation; how Bible-believers typically harmonize parallel passages within Scripture; biblical evidence for an old earth; and biblical evidence for a long creative period. Date
Occasional Paper OP 46 Newman, Robert C. Intimations from Order of a Mind behind the Universe This paper was written up from the notes of a talk given to the physics colloquium at the University of Delaware in 1984. How does one distinguish an artifact from an object that has been randomly formed? Is life an artifact or an accident? Here we consider the organization in living systems. Is the universe an artifact or an accident? Next we consider the organization found in various features of nuclei, molecules, the earth-sun system, and the basic known forces in the universe. Date
Occasional Paper OP 47 Newman, Robert C. The Creation-Evolution Controversy A series of four lectures prepared for delivery in the spring of 1990 at Pinebrook Junior College, but never given. The four lectures are: Evolution and its Arguments; Scientific Problems of Evolution; the Origin of Life; and a Biblical Alternative to Evolution. Date
Occasional Paper OP 48 Newman, Robert C. Psalms 1 to 50 in Meter Singing Psalms goes back to the very beginning of the church, carrying on a tradition from the earlier Jewish worship. Following the Reformation, rhymed metrical versions of the Psalms in English became the standard hymns for some centuries in Presbyterian and Reformed circles. Here the first fifty Psalms of the Old Testament are given in a new versification according to the common meter — that is, -/ -/ -/ -/, -/ -/ -/ — a line of Iambic tetrameter and another of Iambic trimeter, repeated to give four lines. In metrical indices, this is noted as This common meter, as its name suggests, was the most used metrical scheme. In The Hymnbook (1955) published by the Presbyterian Church of the United States, the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Reformed Church in America, of the nearly 600 hymns included, over 90 are in the common meter. Date
Occasional Paper OP 49 Newman, Robert C. Psalms 51 to 100 in Meter The second of three projected papers. Here the second fifty Psalms of the Old Testament are given in a new versification according to the common meter — that is, -/ -/ -/ -/, -/ -/ -/ — a line of Iambic tetrameter and another of Iambic trimeter, repeated to give four lines. The second and fourth lines are rhymed. In metrical indices, this is noted as This common meter, as its name suggests, was the most used metrical scheme. In The Hymnbook (1955) published by the Presbyterian Church of the United States, the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Reformed Church in America, of the nearly 600 hymns included, over 90 are in the common meter. Date
Occasional Paper OP 50 Newman, Robert C. Psalms 101 to 150 in Meter The third of three papers. Here the last fifty Psalms of the Old Testament are given in a new versification according to the common meter — that is, -/ -/ -/ -/, -/ -/ -/ — a line of Iambic tetrameter and another of Iambic trimeter, repeated to give four lines. The second and fourth lines are rhymed. In metrical indices, this is noted as This common meter, as its name suggests, was the most used metrical scheme. In The Hymnbook (1955) published by the Presbyterian Church of the United States, the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Reformed Church in America, of the nearly 600 hymns included, over 90 are in the common meter. Date
Occasional Paper OP 51 Newman Ballads of the King: Jesus' Parables in Common Meter A number of the parables of Jesus are here rendered in ballad form, that is, in successive lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, with rhyming of lines 2 and 4 of each quatrain. Date
Occasional Paper OP 52 Newman Joshua's Long Day and the NASA Computers A story that the computers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discovered evidence for a day missing in time, which provides independent evidence for Joshua's "long day" (Joshua 10), is investigated. An attempt is made to figure out how such evidence could be recognized. Two earlier versions of this story are noted. Date
Occasional Paper OP 53 MacRae Archaeology and Fulfilled Prophecy The difficulty of predicting the future. Examples from the Bible that point to its divine author behind the humans authors: Babylon to become a dry land; Egypt: Memphis to lose its idols; Jerusalem to be trodden down by the Gentiles. Transcribed from a tape of a lecture given at the Summer Seminar at Faith Theological Seminary, 1965. Date
Occasional Paper OP 54 Newman The Value of a Seminary Education The difficulty of predicting the future. Examples from the Bible that point to its divine author behind the humans authors: Babylon to become a dry land; Egypt: Memphis to lose its idols; Jerusalem to be trodden down by the Gentiles. Transcribed from a tape of a lecture given at the Summer Seminar at Faith Theological Seminary, 1965. Date
Occasional Paper OP 55 MacRae The Days of Creation in Genesis This is Dr. Allan A. MacRae's response to Harry Rimmer's arguments for literal days in connection with the creation account in Genesis chapter one. Rimmer presents twelve arguments in his debate with William Bell Riley (1929). MacRae responds by emphasizing what the Bible actually says rather than inferences from it. Some of the topics discussed include: the inspiration of the Bible; science and the Bible; the question of instantaneous days; the biblical usage of the Hebrew and Greek terms translated "day"; "evening" and "morning"; work days; and the definition of "day" as one rotation about the earth's axis. This was compiled from correspondence written by Dr. MacRae in 1966, to queries on the question of how the days of Creation should be understood. It has been edited and re-arranged to reduce repetition and give an orderly discussion, with annotations by Dr. David C. Bossard. Though Harry Rimmer was an old-earth creationist, his arguments are very similar to those of young-earth creationists. It may be that this correspondence was generated in response to the publication of The Genesis Flood by Henry Morris and John Whitcomb. Date
Syllabus IS 1 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Evolution & Special Creation A semester-length course taught on the seminary level, first at Faith Theological Seminary and then at Biblical Seminary, between the 1960s and the 1990s. Using copious quotations from respected scholars, Prof. Dunzweiler helps us see for ourselves what the arguments and evidence for evolution look like, and at each point suggests how Christians should respond. Prof. Dunzweiler's own view of the matter is that of old-earth special creation. Date
Syllabus IS 2 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Systematic Theology 1 The first of a series of four courses in systematic theology taught for many years by the author at Biblical Theological Seminary. Here systematic theology organizes the teaching of the Bible topically. This first section of systematic theology covers two major topics: Prolegomena and Theology Proper. Prolegomena discusses introductory matters: what theology is and how it functions. Theology Proper discusses the specific topic of God, his knowability and character. Date
Syllabus IS 3 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Systematic Theology 2 The second of a series of four courses in systematic theology taught for many years by the author at Biblical Theological Seminary. Here systematic theology organizes the teaching of the Bible topically. This second section of systematic theology covers three major topics: the works of God, anthropology, and objective soteriology. The works of God include His decrees, creation, providence, and miracles. Anthropology includes the constitutional nature of mankind, the origin of the soul-spirit in the individual, the original state of mankind, the covenant of works, the nature of sin, the origin of sin and the fall of mankind, and the results of the fall. Objective soteriology includes the plan of salvation, predestination, the covenant of grace, and the person of Christ. Date
Syllabus IS 4 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Systematic Theology 3 The third of a series of four courses in systematic theology taught for many years by the author at Biblical Theological Seminary. Here systematic theology organizes the teaching of the Bible topically. This third section of systematic theology covers four major topics: objective soteriology (continued), the person and saving work of the Holy Spirit, a theological exposition of Romans chapters 1-8, and the application of salvation. Date
Syllabus IS 5 Dunzweiler, Robert J. Systematic Theology 4 The last in a series of four courses in systematic theology taught for many years by the author at Biblical Theological Seminary. Here systematic theology organizes the teaching of the Bible topically. This fourth section of systematic theology covers three major topics: spiritual gifts, the church and its ordinances (ecclesiology), and future things (eschatology). Date
Syllabus IS 6 Newman, Robert C. Synoptic Gospels A semester-length course taught at Biblical Seminary up to the fall of 2005. The historical Jesus; Jewish background to the New Testament; Introduction to exegesis and exegeting a narrative passage; Authorship and date of the synoptic Gospels; Exegeting parables; The Gospels as literary works; The synoptic problem; Geography of Jerusalem and Palestine; Exegeting miracle accounts; Theology of the synoptics; Exegeting controversy accounts; Form criticism and redaction criticism. Date
Syllabus IS 7 Newman, Robert C. Johannine Literature & General Epistles A semester-length course taught at Biblical Seminary. The Gospel of John; the Letters of John (1, 2 and 3 John); the Letters of Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, Jude; the Book of Revelation; the Canon of the New Testament. Date
Syllabus IS 8 Newman, Robert C. Acts & Pauline Epistles A semester-length course taught at Biblical Seminary. Mediterranean geography; chronology of the New Testament; introduction to Acts; exegesis of historical passages; Paul's early epistles and eschatology; exegesis of theological passages; Gentile background to the New Testament; Paul's middle epistles and soteriology; exegesis of controversy passages; Paul's prison epistles and Christology; exegesis of exhortation passages; the pastoral epistles and the last days of Paul. Date
Syllabus IS 9 Newman, Robert C. Revelation This is a semester-length seminary course looking at the background and contents of the last book in the Bible. The syllabus begins with introductory matters such as varieties of interpretation, authorship and date. We then proceed chapter by chapter through the book of Revelation, noting in each chapter its location in the flow of the book, its background in the Old Testament and other sources, Greek language notes, the basic picture in the chapter, and various indications which may help us in interpreting the passage or the book as a whole. We take the book as a genuine revelation from God and proceed through the book section by section, noting various features without pontificating on just when and how these were or are fulfilled, leaving it to the students to satisfy themselves on these subjects. Date
Syllabus IS 10 Newman, Robert C. Hebrews The Letter to the Hebrews is one of the most striking books of the New Testament. It deals with tensions faced by first-century Jewish Christians at a time when it looked dangerous to follow Jesus and safe to lay low in Judaism. The author seeks to show his readers that this strategy would be a serious and tragic mistake, a disaster of eternal proportions. In this semester course taught several times at Biblical Seminary, we seek to understand something of the background of this letter, including its authorship, date and recipients. We will then go through the book section-by-section, seeking to understand the author's arguments and the very important Christological and salvation history teachings. We will also suggest some lessons for believers today, in situations that are rather different Date
Syllabus IS 11 Newman, Robert C. Evidence for the Christian Faith Is there really enough evidence out there to make a reasonable choice of what worldview to believe? We suggest there is, and that worldview is biblical Christianity. These are the class notes for a semester-length course taught for many years at Biblical Seminary. The major topics covered are: evidence from general revelation, evidence from special revelation, and evidence from redemption. Some of the particular subtopics discussed are the origin of the universe, design in the universe, life, pre-knowledge of science in the Bible, fulfilled prophecy, Jesus, redeemed individuals, and redeemed societies. Date
Syllabus IS 12 Newman, Robert C. The Miraculous & the Miracles of Jesus Course notes from a semester-length course taught at Biblical Seminary. The first part of the course deals with the miraculous: What are miracles? A survey of Old and New Testament miracles; miracle accounts in the NT Apocrypha; some post-Apostolic and medieval miracle accounts; science and the rise of theological liberalism; responding to liberal objections to miracles. The second part of the course discusses the miracles of Jesus, subdivided into miracles over the natural realm; miracles over the human realm; and miracles over the spirit realm. Date
Syllabus IS 13 Newman, Robert C. Jewish Backgrounds to the New Testament A survey of the primary Jewish literature of the Intertestament and early Christian era, with particular emphasis on how it helps us better to understand the New Testament. Following a quick survey of Jewish history from 750 BC to 550 AD, the various materials are introduced and correlated with the New Testament: (1) the Targums, (2) the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, (3) the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, (4) the Qumran literature, (5) Philo, (6) Josephus, and finally, (7) the Rabbinic literature: Talmud and Midrash. Date
Syllabus IS 14 Newman, Robert C. New Testament Introduction A seminary-level course taught for many years at Biblical Seminary. The course is not a survey of the contents of the New Testament (NT Survey), nor an introduction to each of the books of the New Testament (Special Introduction), but rather what is traditionally known as General Introduction. The course begins with a sketch of the Greek language: its linguistic context and history, from pre-Classical to modern times; how NT Greek fits into this; and how this may affect interpretation of the NT. The main section of the course looks at the text of the NT: our ancient sources and modern printed editions, the history of the text before and since printing began, and the practice of textual criticism. Date
Syllabus IS 15 Newman, Robert C. New Testament Backgrounds A semester-length course taught for many years at Biblical Seminary. Beginning with a brief history of the Intertestament period (roughly 550 BC to 150 AD), we continue with an overview of the geography of Palestine, Jerusalem, and the Mediterranean. This is followed by a sketch of the chronology of the New Testament period. Finally we look at New Testament culture, including money, the home, and society. We conclude with a brief introduction to New Testament archaeology. Date
Syllabus IS 16 Newman, Robert C. Gospel of Luke This is a semester-length, seminary level course on the Gospel of Luke. We begin with introductory matters: the authorship and date of the Gospel, the Synoptic Problem, Redaction Criticism, the content and outline of Luke. Then we proceed to a verse-by-verse discussion of Luke. In this Kindle edition, foreign words will be transliterated and italicized. Date
Syllabus IS 17 Newman, Robert C. Gospel of Matthew This is a semester-length, seminary level course on the Gospel of Matthew. We begin with introductory matters: the authorship and date of the Gospel, Matthew the author, his audience, aim and structure of the Gospel, characteristic phrases, unique materials, and outline. Then we proceed to a verse-by-verse discussion of Matthew. In this Kindle edition, foreign words will be transliterated and italicized. Date
Syllabus IS 18 Newman, Robert C. Jesus, Foundation of the NT Jesus is the foundation of New Testament history and theology. Here we survey a number of key passages, along the way responding to modern criticism. After looking at Old Testament foundation passages, we consider the liberal Jesus, and then sketch Jesus' pre-existence and incarnation, his birth, his message, his works, his parables, his death, including Paul and Hebrews on Jesus' death, his resurrection, his ascension and his return. Date
Syllabus IS 19 Newman, Robert C. The Parables of Jesus This is an introduction to the parables of Jesus. We will consider how they function as analogies. We will look at the Old Testament background to parables, including various sorts of figurative stories and also some of the OT figures which are employed by Jesus in his parables. We will also consider the parables of the rabbis in the centuries surrounding the New Testament period. Then we will survey about twenty of Jesus' parables. Date
Syllabus IS 20 Newman, Robert C. Colossians Translation, analysis and exegesis of Paul’s letter to the church at Colosse in the light of the religious situation in the first century Mediterranean world, attempting to identify the particular heresy Paul addresses. We attempt some applications to the modern religious scene today. Date
Syllabus IS 21 MacRae, Allan A. Post-Reformation Church History I This is the first semester of a two-semester course in Reformation and Post-Reformation Church History. These lectures were transcribed from a sound-recording, and lightly edited, so they still have much of a spoken flavor. The lectures begin with the world into which the Reformation came, and continue with the Reformation, concentrating on Martin Luther and John Calvin, ending with the Reformation in England up to the career of Mary, Queen of Scots. The second semester, though sketched in the Contents and Outline at the beginning of these lectures, will be covered in another text. Date
Syllabus IS 22 MacRae, Allan A. Post-Reformation Church History II This is the second semester of a two-semester course in Reformation and Post-Reformation Church History. These lectures were transcribed from a sound-recording, and lightly edited, so they still have much of a spoken flavor. The lectures begin with the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England as James I. This is followed by the Anabaptists of the 16th century; the Counter-Reformation; Europe during the first half of the 17th century; Great Britain during the same period; then Europe and Great Britain during the remainder of the 17th century; this is followed by the 18th century, first in Europe and then in the English-speaking world; the 19th and 20th centuries (to 1950) are treated more topically. The first semester, though sketched in the Contents and Outline at the beginning of these lectures, is covered in IBRI Syllabi #21. Date
Syllabus IS 23 MacRae, Allan A. Pre-Reformation Church History I This is the first semester of a two-semester course in Pre-Reformation Church History. These lectures were transcribed from a sound-recording and only lightly edited, so they still have much of a spoken flavor. They begin with introductory matters, followed by a presentation of the world into which Christianity came, including the Roman Empire, Hellenism and Judaism. Thereafter the course is divided into centuries, this first semester covering the first four centuries of the Christian era. Typical topics include Christian interaction with the Roman Empire, Christian leaders and writers, various heresies and theological developments. Date
Syllabus IS 24 MacRae, Allan A.
Pre-Reformation Church History II This is the second semester of a two-semester course in Pre-Reformation Church History. These lectures were transcribed from a sound-recording and only lightly edited, so they still have much of a spoken flavor. The first semester material is found in IBRI Syllabi #23. This second semester begins in the latter part of the fourth century AD with the rise of monasticism, and it goes on to discuss the careers of Jerome and Augustine. Then the fifth century is sketched, along with the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The thousand-year period from then to the Reformation is first given in overview, and later discussed in more detail. Each century (or two-century period) includes a sketch of the secular or political situation, the various doctrinal controversies, monastic movements, the papacy, and principal writers and leaders. The rise of Islam and the Crusades are sketched, along with various movements leading toward the Reformation. Date
Syllabus IS 25 MacRae Old Testament History I: Before Abraham The first in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History, this syllabus includes an introductory section on history in general and Old Testament history in particular. It then covers the first eleven chapters of Genesis—the events before Abraham. Special attention is given to creation; the fall of mankind; the flood; and the tower of Babel; with excurses on interpretation; archaeology; evolution; the Babylonian flood story, Enuma Elish; textual criticism and the flood; and Palestinian archaeology. These lectures have been edited from about a dozen fragments of lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered between the late 1940s and 1960. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition. Date
Syllabus IS 26 MacRae Old Testament History II: Patriarchal Age The second in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History, this syllabus includes material relevant to Genesis chapters 12 through 50. It begins with considerable detail on Mesopotamia, Egypt and Palestine about the time of Abraham. Then the biblical histories of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph are each discussed, bringing in various aspects of the material and spiritual lives of each, including relevant New Testament passages. These lectures have been edited from about a dozen fragments of lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered between the late 1940s and 1960. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 27 MacRae Mesopotamian Archaeology This is an extract from a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History, going into considerable detail on the archaeology of Mesopotamia as it stood in 1949, when these lectures were given. This syllabus includes a history of the decipherment of the cuneiform languages involved; excavation in Mesopotamia; a history of Mesopotamia as reconstructed; and contacts between Mesopotamian archaeology and the Bible. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 28 MacRae Old Testament History III: Exodus The third in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History, this syllabus includes: the Egyptian background, Israel's oppression, Moses' background, his struggle with Pharaoh, the Passover, the departure from Egypt and the escape through the Red Sea. These lectures have been edited from a number of fragments of lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered between the late 1940s and 1960. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 29 MacRae Old Testament History IV: In the Wilderness The fourth in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History. This syllabus includes:
Israel's travel from Egypt; at Sinai; to the plains of Moab; the Balaam incident; preparation for entrance into Canaan; and Moses' last days. These lectures have been edited from a number of fragments of lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered between the late 1940s and 1960. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course.
Syllabus IS 30 MacRae Old Testament History V: Joshua The fifth in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History. This syllabus includes: Introduction; entrance into Canaan; conquest of Canaan; division of the land; last days of Joshua. These lectures have been edited from a number of fragments of lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered between the late 1940s and 1960. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 31 MacRae An Excursus on the Law Part of a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History, this syllabus includes some material given in 1952 in the section "In the Wilderness" which was not given in other years: how the Law was given; kinds of law; the Decalogue (Ten Commandments); the purposes of the Law; and the relation of the Law to the Christian. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 32 MacRae Old Testament History VI: Judges, Ruth, Samuel The sixth in a series of seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History. This syllabus includes: Introduction to Judges, the Chronology of the Period, the Completion of the Conquest, a Few Points about Outstanding Judges, the Closing Chapters of Judges; Ruth; the Life of Samuel, His Ancestry and Youth, the Return of the Ark, the Victory of Ebenezer, Samuel's Circuit, the Selection of a King, Samuel Rejecting the King, Samuel's Death and Appearance to Saul. These lectures have been edited from lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, delivered in 1958-59. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching. Date
Syllabus IS 33 MacRae Old Testament History VII: Kings Before Jehu The seventh in a series of eight seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History. This syllabus includes: The United Kingdom (Saul, David, Solomon), The Divided Kingdom Before Jehu (The Disruption, The First Three Kings of Judah, The First Two Dynasties of Israel, the Dynasty of Omri, Judah Under Jehoshaphat and Jehoram). These lectures have been edited from lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, mostly those delivered in 1958-59. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Syllabus IS 34 MacRae Old Testament History VIII: Jehu to Return The last in a series of eight seminary-level lectures on Old Testament History. This syllabus includes: The Divided Kingdom from Jehu to Hoshea (the Dynasty of Jehu, Judah during the century after 841 BC, the Assyrian Empire); The Final Days of the Northern Kingdom (the Assyrian Empire, Judah at this time, the Downfall of the Northern Kingdom); The Last Century of Judah (the Assyrian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Last Kings of Judah); The Exile (the Beginning of the Exile, the Nature of the Captivity, the Fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Rise of the Persian Empire); Return and Rebuilding (Return under Zerubbabel, Return under Ezra, Nehemiah). These lectures have been edited from lecture transcripts of the course Old Testament History, mostly those delivered in 1958-59. The editors (DCB and RCN) have attempted to preserve Dr. MacRae's distinctive lecture style and anecdotes while eliminating a good deal of the repetition that occurs in teaching a multi-session course. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 1F Newman, Robert C. The Historicity of the Biblical Narratives of Easter Week (French)
Ceci est l'exposé constructif qui fut fait lors d'un débat à l'université de Cornell en 1979, et revu en 1985. (L'enregistrement du débat entier est disponible, catalogue # IRN-02) On y examine les arguments qui nient les miracles. On compare les données du Nouveau Testament avec d'autres travaux historiques de l'Antiquité. On remarque que l'exposé des faits présentés dans le Nouveau Testament est confirmé par des auteurs païens et juifs. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 1G Newman, Robert C. The Historicity of the Biblical Narratives of Easter Week (German)
Die befürwortende Darstellung einer Debatte von 1979 an der Cornell-Universität, 1985 überarbeitet (eine MP3 der vollständigen Debatte ist erhältlich, siehe und IRN-02b.mp3). Argumente gegen Wunder werden untersucht. Die Dokumente des Neuen Testamentes werden mit anderen alten historischen Werken verglichen. Bestätigungen der neutestamentlichen Berichte durch heidnische und jüdische Verfasser werden angeführt. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 6F Newman, Robert C. The New Testament Model of the Messiah (French)
Le Modele du Messie Presente dans le Nouveau Testament
Différentes tentatives ont été faites durant les siècles qui ont suivi l'achève¬ment de l'Ancien Testament pour comprendre ses enseignements au sujet de la venue du Messie. Les modèles construits par les rabbins, la secte de Qumran, les auteurs de littérature apocalyptique et le Nouveau Testa¬ment sont ici comparés aux données de l'Ancien Testament pour montrer la capacité frappante et la supériorité qu=a le modèle fourni par le Nouveau Testament pour correspondre à certaines caractéristiques paradoxales. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 6G Newman, Robert C. The New Testament Model of the Messiah (German)
In den Jahrhunderten nach der Fertigstellung des Alten Testaments wurden verschiedene Versuche unternommen, dessen Lehren über den kommenden Messias zu verstehen. Modelle, die von den Rabbinern, der Qumran Gemeinschaft, den Schreibern der apokalyptischen Literatur und dem Neuen Testament aufgestellt wurden, werden hier mit dem Datenmaterial des Alten Testaments verglichen, um die auffallende Überlegenheit des neutestamentlichen Modells zu zeigen, das gewisse paradoxe Charakteristika auflöst. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 6S Newman, Robert C. The New Testament Model of the Messiah (Spanish)
El Modelo del Mesias en el Nuevo Testamento
En los siglos cerca del inicio de la era cristiana, muchos judíos trataron de reconstruir las referencias dispersas del mesías en el Antiguo Testamento con el fin de averiguar quién era, lo que haría, cuándo vendría, y tales. La situación en ese tiempo era como la del cristianismo evangélico hoy, donde hay animados debates en torno al tiempo y la naturaleza de los eventos relativos a la segunda venida de Cristo, como se ilustran en el Nuevo Testamento.... Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 9F Newman, Robert C. The Time of the Messiah (French)
Le Temps du Messie
Les sources historiques des deux premiers siècles de notre ère indiquent qu'à cette époque, l'attente du retour du Messie s'appuyait sur une prophétie de l'Ancien Testament, probablement Daniel 9:24 27. Le calcul classique de Sir Robert Anderson, qui s'appuie sur ce passage, soulève de sérieux problèmes. Mais il existe une alternative si les <> sont interprétées comme étant en fait des cycles d'années sabbatiques. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 9G Newman, Robert C. The Time of the Messiah (German)
Die Zeit des Messias
Die historischen Quellen aus den ersten beiden Jahrhunderten des christlichen Zeitalters weisen darauf hin, daß dies eine Zeit war, in der man erwartete, daß der Messias in Erfüllung einiger alttestamentlicher Prophetien, wahrscheinlich Daniel 9:24-27, erscheinen würde. Die klassische Berechnung von Sir Robert Anderson stößt jedoch auf einige ernsthafte Schwierigkeiten, die aber dadurch gelöst werden können, daß man die "Wochen" dieser Prophetie als die alttestamentlichen siebenjährigen Zyklen der Landbestellung annimmt. Das Ergebnis weist auf Jesus als die Erfüllung dieser Prophetie hin.
Research Report (Translated) RR 9S Newman, Robert C. The Time of the Messiah (Spanish)
La Era del Mesias
Las fuentes historicas de los dos primeros siglos de la era cristiana indican que este fué un período en el que se anticipaba el cumplimiento de algunas profecías del Antiguo Testamento, en particular la de Daniel 9:24-27. Los cálculos clásicos de Sir Robert Anderson presentan dificultades serias, pero estas pueden resolverse interpretando las "semanas" de esta profecía como los siete años del ciclo sabático del Antiguo Testamento. El resultado señala a Jesús como el cumplimiento de esta profecía.
Research Report (Translated) RR 36G Newman, Robert C. Self-Reproducing Automata & the Origin of Life (German)
Unter der Annahme, daß das einfachste Lebewesen ein sich selbst reproduzierendes Automaton darstellt, wird die kleinste Komplexität untersucht, die für Leben notwendig ist. Es werden in kurzer Form die Arbeiten von von Neumann, Codd und Langton vorgestellt, wobei Langtons äußerst einfaches sich selbst-reproduzierendes Automaton im einzelnen beschrieben wird. Die Komplexität von Langtons Automaton weist stark darauf hin, daß Leben nicht zufällig entstanden ist, sondern vielmehr einem Plan entspringt. Date
Research Report (Translated) RR 39S Newman, Robert C. Jesus, The Testimony of Prophecy & History (Spanish)
Jesus: El Testimonio de la Profecia y la Historia
Entre las predicciones encontradas en el Antiguo Testamento, aquellas concernientes al mesías prometido de Israel son especialmente importantes. El Mesías, de acuerdo con la Biblia, vendrá algún día y rescatará a su pueblo de sus opresores. Él traerá una edad de oro. Israel se convertirá en la nación principal y Jerusalén en la capital del mundo. La humanidad será gobernada con justicia, y la opresión cesará. Todos vivirán seguros en su propiedad y disfrutarán los frutos de sus propias labores. A pesar de la naturaleza atractiva de estas profecías, las reacciones a ellas han sido variadas. De acuerdo con los cristianos, el mesías ya vino, aunque no inaugurará esta edad de oro hasta que regrese; él es Jesús de Nazaret. ...
Research Report (Translated) RR 40S Phillips, Perry
Are the Days of Genesis Longer than 24 Hours? (Spanish)
Hemos visto dos evidencias contundentes que los días del Génesis se pueden entender en forma figurativa. Primero, hemos investigado el uso de los terminos "día", "mañana" y "tarde" y hemos visto que estos palabras pueden ser usadas figurativamente. Segundo, hemos examinado que la terminología usada para describir las actividades del sexto día, y encontramos suficiente evidencia para afirmar que los eventos del sexto día no se pueden poner dentro de un periodo de 24 horas. Concluimos pues que las escrituras mismas afirman que los "días" del Génesis no tienen porque ser interpretados en forma literal. Date

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